Nepali calendar 2074 is a Bikram Sambat B.S. era calendar of Nepal.
In addition to Bikram Sambat, the Gregorian calendar and the Newari Calendar (Nepal Sambat) are also used in Nepal. The Bikram Sambat Calendar is 56.7 years ahead of the solar Gregorian calendar. The current year as per Bikram Sambat is 2074 whereas as per Gregorian calendar it is 2017.
- 1 Nepali calendar
- 1.1 Nepali calendar : Bikram Sambat
- 1.2 When Bikram Sambat (Nepali Calendar) came in use in Nepal
- 1.3 Culture in Nepali Calendar
- 1.4 Use of Bikram Sambat in Nepali Calendar
- 1.5 Nepal Sambat in Nepali Calendar
- 1.6 About Nepali Calendar
- 1.7 How did it revive even after being removed officially?
- 1.8 History of Nepal Sambat
- 1.9 Main Events in Nepal sambat of Nepali Calendar
- 1.10 Gregorian calendar Vs Nepali Calendar
- 1.11 About Gregorian calendar
- 1.12 Months of the year with days in Gregorian Calendar
- 1.13 Use of Gregorian calendar
- 1.14 Limitation of Gregorian calendar
- 1.15 Other Calendar (Not used in Nepal)
Nepali calendar : Bikram Sambat
Bikram Sambat is the historical and official Hindu calendar of Nepal. It uses lunar months and solar sidereal year. It started in 58/57 BCE in southern (purnimanta) and 57/56 BCE in Nepal (amanta) systems of Hindu calendar. Since, 12 months do not match a sidereal year exactly; correctional months are added or occasionally subtracted namely Adhika Masa and Kshaya Masa respectively. A year of Bikram Sambat in India starts from Chaitra where as in Nepal the calendar starts from the month of Baisakh.
Twelve months of Bikram Sambat with number of days and corresponding Gregorian months are:
|No.||Name||Hindi||Days||Corresponding Gregorian months|
|1||Baishakh||बैशाख||30 / 31(30.950 exactly)||mid-April to mid-May|
|2||Jestha||जेष्ठ or जेठ||31 / 32(31.429 exactly)||mid-May to mid-June|
|3||Ashadh||आषाढ़ or असार||31 / 32(31.638 exactly)||mid-June to mid-July|
|4||Shrawan||श्रावण or साउन / सावन||31 / 32(31.463 exactly)||mid-July to mid-August|
|5||Bhadra||भाद्र or भदौ/भादो||31 / 32(31.012 exactly)||mid-August to mid-September|
|6||Ashwin||आश्विन or असोज||30 / 31(30.428 exactly)||mid-September to mid-October|
|7||Kartik||कार्तिक||29 / 30(29.879 exactly)||mid-October to mid-November|
|8||Mangsir||मार्ग or मंसिर||29 / 30(29.475 exactly)||mid-November to mid-December|
|9||Poush||पौष or पुष/पूस||29 / 30(29.310 exactly)||mid-December to mid-January|
|10||Magh||माघ||29 / 30(29.457 exactly)||mid-January to mid-February|
|11||Falgun||फाल्गुन or फागुन||29 / 30(29.841 exactly)||mid-February to mid-March|
|12||Chaitra||चैत्र or चैत||30 / 31(30.377 exactly)||mid-March to mid-April|
When Bikram Sambat (Nepali Calendar) came in use in Nepal
Bikram Sambat is the calendar established by Indian emperor Vikramaditya and is recognized as the official calendar of Nepal. It started in 58/57 BCE in southern (purnimanta) and 57/56 BCE in Nepal (amanta) systems of Hindu calendar. The Shukla Paksha in both systems coincides, most festivals occur in the Shukla Paksha.
After the rise of the Rana oligarchs in Nepal, Bikram Sambat came into unofficial use along with the official Shaka Sambat (Shankhadhar Sakhwa) for quite some time. They discontinued Shaka Sambat in its 1823rd year and replaced it with Bikram Sambat for official use since then to date. Bikram Sambat came into official use in its 1958th year.
Culture in Nepali Calendar
The month of Baisakh in the calendar of the Bikram Sambat is closely linked to the ideals, principles, and philosophies of Lord Buddha. Major events in the lives of the Buddha his birth, death, and great deeds took place in this very month of Baisakh Purnima, the full moon night. It commemorates the birth, Enlightenment and passing of Gautama Buddha on the first full moon day in May, except in a leap year when the festival is held in June
Moreover, Nepal being a multicultural country, we celebrate more than 50 festivals in a year. One of the major festivals Dashain is celebrated in the month of Kartik according to Bikram Sambat in Nepali Calendar.
Use of Bikram Sambat in Nepali Calendar
The use of Bikram Sambat as a calendar is not only limited to Nepal but it is also used in India, many other countries of South and Southeast Asian countries. Many countries in these regions have identical values and norms.
Today most of the calendar we can find in Nepal is in Bikram Sambat and Gregorian calendar.
You can find the current date and the format of Nepali calendar here.
Nepal Sambat in Nepali Calendar
Nepal Sambat is the national lunar calendar of Nepal. The government of Nepal recognized the Nepal Sambat as the national calendar in 2007 A.D. However, the era started on 20 October 879 A.D. and was in widespread use for all daily purposes until the beginning of the 20th Century when it came under official disapproval.
However, the calendar is still in use because most of the Nepalese festivals are celebrated according to the Nepal Sambat calendar. As a result of which most of the Nepalese national newspaper have employed this calendar together with the Gregorian calendar and the Bikram Sambat.
About Nepali Calendar
This is a lunar calendar. It consists of 354 days per year and an added one month every third year. This calendar came into being and into official use during the reign of king Raghabdev, immediately after the completion of Mandev Sambat 304 (881 AD). Nepal Sambat is a unique calendar in the whole world. All other calendars are named after some rulers or religious leaders. Nepal Sambat is the only calendar which is named after a country.
Nepal Sambat was started in 879 AD during the reign of King Raghav Dev to commemorate the payment of all the debts of the Nepalese people by a Nepalese trader named Sankhadhar Sakhwa. This calendar was in continuous official use in Nepal for 888 years, i.e., from 881 to 1769 AD. After conquering Kathmandu in 1769 AD, Gorkha king Prithvi Narayan Shah discontinued official use of Nepal Sambat.
How did it revive even after being removed officially?
Following a century of official neglect and even suppression, Nepal Sambat has been revived as a symbol of Nepal’s glory and national unity. In 2008, the government named it a national era. On 25 October 2011, the government decided to bring Nepal Sambat into use as the country’s national calendar, and formed a taskforce to make recommendations on its implementation. However, no action has been taken after that to bring the era into practice.
Despite the loss of legal recognition for Nepal Sambat, many people in Kathmandu valley and other parts of the country have continued using the calendar because most of the Nepalese festivals are celebrated according to this calendar. It is also used to date manuscripts, books and inscriptions. Birth and death anniversaries, and almost all the religious festivals, are observed according to the lunar calendar. Horoscopes are also based on the lunar calendar.
History of Nepal Sambat
Although we know the exact date of the founding of Nepal Sambat, we do not know why it was founded. The only traditional explanation is the one offered by the later chronicles. The French Oriental Sylvain Levi (1863-1935 A.D), an influential authority on ancient Nepalese history and culture, speculated that the era was founded by deducting 800 years in the Saka Era because the Nepalese thought 8 to be an inauspicious number. It is worth remembering that some three hundred years earlier, an epoch era was used, just two years earlier than the beginning of Saka Era 500-in A.D. 576. Although a later manuscript calls it Manadeva Sambat and Tibetans all it Amsuvarma Era, the origins of this epoch era, too, are shrouded in equally impenetrable darkness.
Levi also suggested that the Nepal era was founded to celebrate Nepal’s deliverance from the Tibetan yoke following the breakdown of the Tibetan power after the murder of King gLang-der-ma in A. D. 842. However, both these theories are rejected by Nepali historians. The actual gap between Saka Era and Nepal Era is 801.7 years, not 800 years, just as the actual gap between Saka Era and the so-called Manadeva Era is 498 years and not 500 years. In one case, a new epoch era was founded 2 years after the close of the 8th century of Saka Era.
Nepal Sambat, Sakhwal Sambat, and Sankhadhararkrta Sambat are all later names for this epoch era. The local tradition that it was founded on the occasion of the “cancellation of everyone’s debts” is of uncertain antiquity. Recently, an American Tibetologist has informed that there is late medieval Tibetan manuscript which dates the era “according to the year of the cancellation of debts”. The colophon can provide us with a substantial piece of evidence in support of the local traditions.
Months of Nepal Sambat in Nepali calendar
|Devanagari script||Corresponding Gregorian month|
An intercalary month named Anālā (अनाला) is added every three years
Main Events in Nepal sambat of Nepali Calendar
888 Nepal Sambat (1768) – Prithvi Narayan Shah’s Gorkhali forces take Kathmandu.
926 (1806) – Bhandarkhal Massacre establishes Bhimsen Thapa as the prime minister of Nepal.
966 (1846) – Kot massacre establishes Jang Bahadur Rana as the prime minister of Nepal and the Rana dynasty.
1054 (1934) – Great Earthquake strikes Nepal.
1061 (1941) – Four martyrs executed by the Rana regime.
1071 (1951) – Revolution topples Rana regime and establishes democracy.
1080 (1960) – Parliamentary system abolished and Panchayat system established.
1111 (1991) – First parliamentary election held after abolition of Panchayat and reinstatement of democracy.
1121 (2001) – The king, queen and other members of the royal family are killed in Nepalese royal massacre.
1128 (2008) – Nepal becomes a republic.
Gregorian calendar Vs Nepali Calendar
The Gregorian calendar is the most widely used civil calendar. It is named after Pope Gregory XIII, who introduced in October 1582. Gregorian calendar is widely used in Nepal as official calendar in many sectors or companies.
About Gregorian calendar
The Gregorian calendar also called New Style Calendar is a solar calendar. A regular Gregorian year consists of 365 days, but as in the Julian calendar, in a leap year, a leap day is added to February. In the Julian calendar a leap year occurs every 4 years, but the Gregorian calendar omits 3 leap days every 400 years. It is widely in used worldwide A calendar date is fully specified by the year (numbered by some scheme beyond the scope of the calendar itself), the month (identified by name or number), and the day of the month (numbered sequentially starting at 1). Although the calendar year currently runs from 1 January to 31 December, at previous times year numbers were based on a different starting point within the calendar. The main reason for introducing the Gregorian calendar was the Easter celebration. The most important day for Christians is the resurrection of Christ and Gregorian is Christian calendar. Easter day is when Christians celebrate Christ’s resurrection.
Months of the year with days in Gregorian Calendar
January: 31 Days
February: 28days in common year and 29 days in leap years
March: 31 days
April: 30 days
May: 31 days
June: 30 days
July: 31 days
August: 31 days
September: 30 days
October: 31 days
November: 30 days
December: 31 days
Use of Gregorian calendar
It is internationally the most widely used civil calendar. It is the only calendar used all around the world. People in Nepal use Georgian calendar as an official calendar in some of the offices and companies. You can find the Georgian date in almost every newspaper and calendar. Festivals like Christmas, Easter and New Year is also celebrated according to Georgian calendar. The increase in number of use of the calendar is the exposure of Nepalese to western culture and westernization.
Limitation of Gregorian calendar
Despite its widespread use, the Gregorian calendar has a number of weaknesses. It cannot be divided into equal halves or quarters; the number of days per month is haphazard; and months or even years may begin on any day of the week. Holidays pegged to specific dates may also fall on any day of the week, and vanishingly few Americans can predict when Thanksgiving will occur next year.
Other Calendar (Not used in Nepal)
Julian calendar: Georgian calendar was a refinement to the Julian calendar involving 0.002% correction in the length of the year. For more information about Julian calendar click here.
Islamic Calendar: is a lunar calendar consisting of 12 months in a year of 354 or 355 days. The current Islamic year is 1438. For more information click here.
Chinese calendar: According to both the Lunar and the Traditional Chinese calendar, we live in the year 4714. For more information on Chinese calendar click here.
Chula Sakarat: is a lunisolar calendar derived from the Burmese calendar, whose variants were in use by most mainland Southeast Asian kingdoms down to the late 19th century.
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